When will you use Unique Keys constraints in Cosmos DB?

Unique keys constraints in Cosmos DB are used when you want to enforce uniqueness of values within a specific property or combination of properties in documents stored in a container. They help ensure data integrity and prevent the insertion or update of documents that violate the uniqueness constraint.

Here are some scenarios where you might use unique keys constraints in Cosmos DB:

  1. Primary Key Constraint: Unique keys constraints can be applied to the primary key property of a container. This ensures that each document within the container has a unique primary key value. It is particularly useful when the primary key represents a globally unique identifier (GUID) or another property that should not be duplicated.
  2. Business Constraints: Unique keys constraints can be used to enforce uniqueness on properties that have specific business rules or requirements. For example, if you have a “username” property in documents representing users, you can define a unique keys constraint on the “username” property to ensure that each user has a unique username within the container.
  3. Composite Unique Keys: Unique keys constraints can also be applied to combinations of properties to enforce uniqueness on a set of properties collectively. This is useful when you want to ensure that a combination of properties, such as “firstName” and “lastName”, is unique within the container.
  4. Preventing Duplicates: Unique keys constraints help prevent the insertion or update of documents that would violate the uniqueness constraint. When a document is inserted or modified, Cosmos DB automatically checks if the unique keys constraint is violated and throws an error if a duplicate value is detected.

By utilizing unique keys constraints, you can maintain data integrity and enforce uniqueness in your Cosmos DB container. They are especially valuable when you have specific properties or combinations of properties that should not be duplicated or violated according to your application’s business rules or requirements.

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