What is Interpreter pattern?

The Interpreter pattern is a behavioral design pattern that defines a language or grammar and provides a way to interpret and evaluate sentences or expressions in that language. It allows you to create a domain-specific language (DSL) and provides a mechanism for parsing and executing expressions written in that language.

The Interpreter pattern involves defining a set of language rules or grammar as classes and using these classes to represent the elements of the language. It provides an interpreter object that can parse and evaluate expressions based on the grammar rules.

Key components of the Interpreter pattern:

  1. Abstract Expression: The abstract expression defines the interface or the base class for the language elements. It declares an abstract interpret() method that concrete expressions must implement.
  2. Terminal Expression: Terminal expressions represent the basic elements or building blocks of the language. They implement the interpret() method according to the language grammar rules. Terminal expressions do not have any sub-expressions.
  3. Non-terminal Expression: Non-terminal expressions represent complex expressions or composite elements of the language. They consist of one or more sub-expressions and implement the interpret() method by combining the interpretations of the sub-expressions.
  4. Context: The context object contains the information or state that is shared among the expressions during interpretation. It provides the necessary data for the expressions to evaluate and produce results.
  5. Client: The client is responsible for creating and configuring the expressions, as well as providing the input to be interpreted. It builds the abstract syntax tree and invokes the interpretation process.

Benefits and use cases of the Interpreter pattern:

  1. Language interpretation: The Interpreter pattern is well-suited for creating interpreters for domain-specific languages (DSLs) or custom languages. It allows you to define the language grammar and provides a mechanism for parsing and evaluating expressions in that language.
  2. Ease of adding new expressions: The Interpreter pattern makes it easy to add new expressions to the language. Each expression is implemented as a separate class, and new expressions can be added by extending the abstract expression or creating new concrete expressions.
  3. Flexibility in expression evaluation: The Interpreter pattern provides flexibility in evaluating expressions. The interpretations can be based on different algorithms or logic, and the evaluation can be customized for specific requirements.
  4. Complex expression evaluation: The Interpreter pattern is useful when dealing with complex expressions or languages where expressions need to be broken down into smaller parts for evaluation. It allows you to represent and evaluate complex expressions by combining simpler expressions.
  5. Separation of concerns: The Interpreter pattern separates the concerns of parsing and evaluating expressions. The expressions encapsulate the evaluation logic, and the client or context object provides the input and manages the interpretation process.

Example of the Interpreter pattern in Java:

// Abstract expression
interface Expression {
    int interpret();

// Terminal expression
class NumberExpression implements Expression {
    private int number;

    public NumberExpression(int number) {
        this.number = number;

    public int interpret() {
        return number;

// Non-terminal expression
class AdditionExpression implements Expression {
    private Expression left;
    private Expression right;

    public AdditionExpression(Expression left, Expression right) {
        this.left = left;
        this.right = right;

    public int interpret() {
        return left.interpret() + right.interpret();

// Client code
public class Application {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create the expression: 5 + (2 + 3)
        Expression expression = new AdditionExpression(
            new NumberExpression(5),
            new AdditionExpression(
                new NumberExpression(2),
                new NumberExpression(3)

        // Evaluate the expression
        int result = expression.interpret();
        System.out.println("Result: " + result); // Output: 10

In the above example, the Interpreter pattern is used to evaluate a simple arithmetic expression. The Expression interface defines the interpret() method, which concrete expressions must implement.

The NumberExpression class represents a terminal expression, which holds a numeric value. The AdditionExpression class represents a non-terminal expression, which combines two sub-expressions using the addition operation.

In the client code, an expression is created by combining NumberExpression and AdditionExpression instances. The expression represents the arithmetic expression “5 + (2 + 3)”. The interpret() method is then called on the expression, which evaluates the expression and produces the result.

By using the Interpreter pattern, you can define and evaluate complex expressions by breaking them down into simpler expressions. The pattern provides a way to create custom interpreters for domain-specific languages or any language where expressions need to be parsed and evaluated.

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