Name some pros and cons of using GUID as Partition Key in Cosmos DB

Using a GUID (Globally Unique Identifier) as a partition key in Cosmos DB can have both advantages and disadvantages. Here are some pros and cons of using a GUID as a partition key:


  1. Unique Identifier: GUIDs provide a globally unique identifier for each item, ensuring that no two items will have the same partition key value. This helps avoid collisions and potential conflicts when distributing data across partitions.
  2. Even Data Distribution: GUIDs have a high cardinality, meaning they offer a wide range of distinct values. This can help achieve a more even distribution of data across partitions, reducing the likelihood of hot partitions and enabling better scalability.
  3. Flexibility: GUIDs can be generated independently of the actual data properties, providing flexibility in choosing the partition key. This can be advantageous when the natural properties of the data do not lend themselves well to effective partitioning.
  4. Low Probability of Key Updates: GUIDs are typically generated once and rarely change. This reduces the likelihood of updates that require data movement across partitions, which can be costly and impact performance.


  1. Storage Overhead: GUIDs are 128-bit values, which require more storage space compared to smaller partition keys. Storing larger partition keys can consume more disk space and may affect the overall storage cost of your Cosmos DB solution.
  2. Query Performance: Using GUIDs as partition keys can lead to increased query complexity and potentially affect query performance. Cross-partition queries or aggregations involving GUID partition keys may require scanning multiple partitions, leading to higher RU consumption and increased latency.
  3. Limited Range Queries: When querying data based on a GUID partition key, range queries that span multiple partition key values may not be efficient. Cosmos DB performs best when queries are scoped to a single partition, so range queries across multiple GUID values may result in less optimal performance.
  4. Difficulty in Bulk Updates: Bulk updates that require modifying the partition key value can be challenging when using GUIDs. Changing the partition key requires exporting and importing the data, which can be a time-consuming process, especially for large datasets.

When considering using a GUID as a partition key in Cosmos DB, it’s essential to carefully evaluate the specific requirements of your application, data access patterns, and scalability needs. Conducting performance testing and considering alternative partitioning strategies may help determine the most suitable approach for your use case.

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