How to undo the most recent commits in Git?

To undo the most recent commits in Git, you can use the git reset command along with the HEAD pointer to move the branch reference back to a previous commit, effectively removing the most recent commits from the branch. There are two common methods to achieve this based on your desired outcome:

1. Soft Reset (Preserve Changes):

If you want to undo the commits but keep the changes in your working directory and staging area (index), you can use a “soft reset.” This will move the branch pointer back to a specific commit without changing the status of your files. The changes from the undone commits will appear as staged changes, allowing you to make additional modifications or commit them again as needed.

To perform a soft reset to undo the most recent commit(s), use the following command:

git reset --soft HEAD~N

Replace N with the number of commits you want to undo. For example, to undo the last two commits, you would use git reset --soft HEAD~2.

2. Hard Reset (Discard Changes):

If you want to completely remove the most recent commits, including the changes made in those commits, you can use a “hard reset.” This will move the branch pointer back to a specific commit and discard any changes made in the undone commits. Be cautious with this method, as it can lead to permanent data loss if you have uncommitted changes in your working directory.

To perform a hard reset to undo the most recent commit(s), use the following command:

git reset --hard HEAD~N

Again, replace N with the number of commits you want to undo. For example, to undo the last two commits and discard their changes, you would use git reset --hard HEAD~2.

Important Note: Be cautious when using git reset --hard as it will remove any changes in your working directory that have not been committed. Make sure to back up any uncommitted changes before running this command.

After undoing the commits, your branch will be set to the state of the commit you specified, effectively removing the most recent commits from the branch history. If you have already pushed these commits to a remote repository, be cautious when using git reset --hard and consider other options like creating a new commit to reverse the changes or using git revert to create new commits that undo the changes introduced in the undesired commits.

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