Briefly describe how GC works in GO
In Go, the Garbage Collector (GC) is responsible for automatically managing memory allocation and deallocation. It ensures that memory is efficiently utilized and that unused memory is reclaimed to prevent memory leaks. The GC in Go uses a technique called “tricolor concurrent mark and sweep” algorithm, and it works as follows:
- Marking (Tricolor Marking):
- The GC first marks all the reachable objects (objects that can be accessed directly or indirectly) starting from the roots (global variables, Goroutine stacks, and registers).
- During the marking phase, each object is marked with one of three colors: white, gray, or black.
- Initially, all objects are white (unmarked). The root objects are marked as gray, and the marking process begins.
- Tricolor Concurrent Marking:
- The marking process is concurrent, meaning it runs concurrently with the application code.
- As the Goroutines execute, they continue to mark reachable objects in the background, while the application code proceeds normally.
- The GC periodically stops the Goroutines briefly to synchronize the marking state, ensuring that all reachable objects are correctly identified.
- Sweeping (Concurrent Sweep):
- After the marking phase is complete, the GC proceeds to the sweeping phase.
- The sweeping phase reclaims the memory occupied by unreachable (unmarked) objects.
- The GC frees the memory associated with unmarked objects, making it available for future allocations.
- Concurrent Mode:
- The GC is designed to minimize pauses and avoid significant stop-the-world (STW) times, where Goroutines are completely paused for GC operations.
- During most of the GC cycle, Goroutines continue running concurrently with the GC operations.
- Adaptive GC:
- Go’s GC is adaptive, which means it dynamically adjusts its parameters based on the application’s behavior and heap size.
- The GC tries to find the right balance between memory usage, garbage collection frequency, and pause times.
The tricolor concurrent mark and sweep algorithm in Go allows the GC to efficiently manage memory without causing noticeable interruptions to the application. By using concurrent marking and adaptive strategies, the Go GC effectively handles memory management for long-running server applications, making Go a popular choice for concurrent and scalable systems.